The advent of Islam in the beginning of 8th century from the South and 11th century from the North ushered in a new era for the arts and crafts of the Sub-continent, a selection of which is presented in the Gallery. The Sura Yasin from the Holy Quran has been calligraphed by the famous artist Sadequain all along the top of showcases in this gallery and running over a length of 269 feet.  On the walls are more masterpieces of calligraphy by the same artist.

Near the entrance from the Hindu, Buddha and Jaina Gallery, are placed specimens of epigraphs in Persian  from the time of the Tughlaq King Feroz Shah and the Mughal emperors Akbar, Jahangir and Aurangzeb (14th to 17th centuries A.D.).

Among others, two remarkable specimens of epigraphs from Lahore are a stone inscription from Masjid Kharasian, inside the Walled City of Lahore dated 1015 A.H./ 1606 A.D and a stone inscription from the tomb of Hazrat Mian Mir, the famous sufi saint. Turning right and moving along showcases against the gallery walls examples of Muslim arts and crafts have been displayed. These include: brocaded, embroidered and other traditional fabrics; Kashmiri shawls; footwear; ivory and mother of pearl / shell artifacts; specimens of lapidary and pietra-dura; jewelry;  religious objects, plain and  painted pottery; and glazed and unglazed pottery from Hala (Sindh).

The gallery exhibits Muslim period metal work using  a variety of techniques like damascene (koftgari), chasing, engraving, cloisonné, filigree, Bidri work (originated in the city of Bidr, India  and denotes the surface ornamentation of one metal through the application of one or more metals) and  enamel work (minakari).

Notable also in this gallery are two astrolabes, both made in Lahore, one in 1640 A.D. and the other in 1841 A.D. Painted and lacquered papier mache objects, wood carvings and paintings, smoking pipes and walking sticks, arms and armour, glazed and mosaic tiles, stone and wood carving, mirror mosaic work, and musical instruments are also the part of the collection on display. A large carpet manufactured in Lahore during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan (17th century) is placed at the centre of the gallery on a platform.

Objects from Bhanbhore, an early Muslim settlement in lower Sind (9th-13th centuries), are of special interest.